Basic Introduction of Computer

Computer is an electronic device that is used for computation earlier and now it can perform enormous numbers of tasks digitally. Computer is used to compute and process the input so that expected result received from the computer as output. Life is going very fast and people do not have time to manage their all business, professional activities manually because they usually have lots of work to do in less amount of time. So, the need of today is technically and electronically managing, creating, processing, exchanging of information from one place to another within few seconds. Technology is usually required in all walks of life. Here, we are going to discuss the technology which has become an essential part of everyone’s life in various fields.

Computer what is computer in IT

Computer is a machine which includes both electronic as well as digital working. It is used to perform different types of functions such as processes, calculations, operations based on the instructions given by a software or hardware program. Computers are widely used all over the world to speed up their works and to build up the majority of things in their lives, such as food, entertainment, communication, transportation, etc. Computers are used to store data, followed by the given instructions. It is also called Personal computer (PC), data processor, laptop computer, word processor, etc.

  • Data is called the raw material of the information, knowledge.
  • Information is called the proper processed collection of the data.

Computers are meant for:

The word computer has derived from the word “compute” which means to calculate. Hence, it is a device which is used to perform arithmetic operations as well as logical operations.

  • Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.
  • Logical operations include: comparison at very high speed or comparison of values such as NOT, AND , OR.

A data processor is consists of some form of memory, central processing unit.

Working of computer:

Computer works by taking input from the user as instruction, then process the input using its logical and arithmetical computational powers and gives out the processed result as output. The Output further can be stored in the memory.

Working of CPU: Input(Instruction/action to perfrom)->Processing(by CPU)->Output (result)-> Storage.

COMPUTER = Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) + Control unit (CU).



Control unit/CU Arithmetic logical unit/ALU (accumulator)
Input & Output


Synonyms of Computer

Personal computer, PC, minicomputer, microcomputer, mainframe, data processor, calculator, electronic brain, word processor, workstation, laptop computer, etc.

Components of Computer System

A word processor is consists of hardware & software parts. The various elements of the computer system are:

  • Software
  • Hardware
  • Firmware
  • Humanware

(1) Software

Computers can’t think on their own so, they need instructions which instruct them what to do and how to do it. Software is a set of instructions or programs and each of these programs is specified to perform a specific operation. All these programs or computer applications run behind your monitor’s screen. They are also called intangible components as we can’t feel, touch or see them because they don’t physically exist. In other words, you can say that software is the programs that are stored & run by hardware.

Examples of computer software are:

  • Microsoft-Windows
  • MS-DOS
  • Notepad
  • Microsoft Word
  • Microsoft Excel
  • Windows Media Player

Types of Software:

  • System Software: System Software are used to Control Hardware of the computer and directly communicate with the computer. Examples: Operating System (provides basic functionality to computer system and application software), Drivers, Antivirus
  • Application Software: Application Software are used to perform specific task such as Calendar, Notes etc. Application software need System Software or OS to run.

(2) Hardware

Hardware is a tangible component of the computer system. Tangible components means those components which exist physically and can be moved from one place to another. It plays an important role in storing your information or data temporarily and executes the given command or instruction.

Examples of hardware:

  • CPU (Microprocessor)
  • Motherboard
  • Graphics Card
  • Monitor
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Speakers
  • Printers
  • Scanners

Types of Computer Hardware:

  1. Processing / Essential hardware: It includes hardware like CPU, Motherboard, Main Memory RAM without which computer cannot run.
  2. Input Devices (Input Peripheral Devices): Input devices are used to give input to the computer system or to interact with computer software. Example of Input devices are mouse, keyboard, pointer, touch screen, digitizer etc.
  3. Output Devices: Output devices are used to output the information, result or data from the computer to external world using output devices. Example of Output devices are Speakers, Printers, Monitor etc.
  4. Memory Devices:

(3) Firmware

Hardware parts and software programs of a computer system are completely dependent on each other and both have no meaning alone. Firmware is an intermediate between the software and hardware in which they work together to get useful output from the computer. Hence, the firmware is the group of software and hardware or you can say that it is a computer program that has been inserted in the hardware devices. Also called embedded software.

Example of firmware:

All the software programs are inbuilt in hard disk, it is an element of hardware.

(4) Humanware

Humanware is a person who interacts with the computer machine and executes the commands. for example: computer professional, a student, etc all the users of the computer are known as humanware. Examples of humanware: Software Engineer, Developer etc.

Features of Computers

  • Multitasking: It can perform multiple tasks at the same time. More than one tasks can be run simultaneously or run paralleled.
  • Accuracy: Always gives results accurately. Accuracy means the correctness of information. Computer-Based Information System (CBIS) inaccuracy takes place due to poor programming, erroneous data and humans are responsible for these mistakes. These mistakes are then, corrected by the computer system itself.
  • Storage: Store data in an appropriate manner. You can store different kinds of data in computers such as images, sounds, videos, text, etc.
  • Speed: Performs functions very quickly and fast. Speed means period required by the computer system in completing a task. Computers can perform tasks in very little time as compared to the humans. Today, technology has become more advanced, fast and now computers can do 100 million calculations per second, it is one of the reasons behind the development of Million Instruction Per Second (MIPS).
  • Versatility: You can perform different types of works or jobs at the same time.
  • Needs instructions: Computer does not work without instructions.
  • Automatic: It does involve the involvement of any person because it works automatically.
  • Source of entertainment: You can use computers to entertain yourself by listening to music, watching videos/movies, playing games, etc.
  • Time-saving & cost-effectiveness: Reduces the amount of paperwork as well as your efforts.
  • Reliability: Data is much more reliable in the form of computerized storage as compare to manual storage.

    Capabilities & Limitations of Computers


    • It can perform mathematical operations and solve complex calculations at very high speed.
    • It is a self-directing machine. Instructions are given by the user at the initial stage and computer can proceed without interference of any human.
    • It can save and retrieve data. Computers can store large amount of data and can recall the same data instantly.
    • It can adapt. It means the ability to perform different types of tasks: simple as well as complex.


    • Lack of common sense: They work according to the stored programs and does not have self common sense.
    • Lack of IQ: IQ means intelligence quotient. Computers cannot think on their own, they perform functions according to the user’s instructions.
    • Lack of decision-making: Computers cannot judge things, that’s why they cannot decisions on their own.
    • It cannot correct invalid input.

     Computer Maintenance

    Computer maintenance is a habit to keep your computer & its parts clean and free from any dust or dirt. It also involves the methods to improve the performance level of the system. The main purpose of this process is to manage your system in a good state so that your computer system always run or work smoothly without any trouble such as technical problem, etc. Learn how to make your computer fast.

    How we can maintain our system’s quality to be good?

    • keep keyboard, mouse always clean and place them on a particular place, away from everyone’s access. Always cover them with a cloth whenever they are not in use. It is not easy to clean your mouse, keyboard because dirt assimilates into the keyboard keys. So, you need to have a compressed air canister to clean them.
    • Always use a microfibre cloth to polish your monitor or an LCD screen cleaner for durable strains.
    • Always keep food & food items away from the Desktops and Laptops.
    • Avoid overcharging your system’s battery.
    • Keep away magnets from your computer and its devices.
    • Shutdown properly if not in use.
    • Always have an external hard drive for backup & extra file storage.
    • Carefully select & install anti-malware programs to avoid any type of viruses.
    • Occasionally reinstall your operating system.
    • Update your system’s programs repeatedly.
    • Systematically delete undesirable programs.

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