Classification Of Operating System & Types of OS

What is an Operating System?

An operating system is a set of various software that manages computer resources (software as well as hardware resources) & also provides services to the users. It acts as a mediator between computer hardware and the user. It controls all the devices connected with the computer. Different types of operating systems has introduced based on the requirements and cost affordable capacity of the users. Different systems perform different types of computer operations & manage various data processing jobs.

Classification Of Operating System, Function and Types

Functions of Operating System

  • Managing The Security of the whole Computer System
  • Managing All the Resources, Such as RAM, CPU, Storage, drivers, Display, etc.
  • Allocating Resources to User Applications and system Applications
  • Accounting JOBS and Keeping Logs
  • Waring users and giving Prompts
  • Error Detection
  • Providing Interface to the END user to communicate with the Computer system
  • CPU Management
  • Device Management
  • File Management (Managing Harddisk, Flash Drives and the other Storage)

Know more about the Functions of Operation System.

Name of Popular Operating Systems:

  1. Android (Linux Based)
  2. UNIX
  3. Windows 10/7/8/XP
  4. MAC OS
  5. UBUNTU (Linux)
  6. Symbian
  7. KaiOS
  8. Blackberry OS
  9. Chrome OS
  10. Firefox OS

Here is the brief description of the various types of operating systems:

Different Types Of Operating System:

  • Batch Processing Operating System
  • Multi-Processing Operating System
  • Multi-Programming Operating System
  • Time-Sharing Operating System
  • Network Operating System
  • Online Operating System
  • Multi-User Operating System
  • Multi-Tasking Operating System
  • Real-Time Operating System
  • Distributed Operating System

Batch Processing Operating System

Batch processing means the transmission of jobs to the CPU in a batch or a group for further processing. These jobs are grouped in batches as they have the same requirements. In the batch processing system, the user and operating system does not directly interact with the computer system. A user formed a job which is composed of program, data and sends it to the computer operator. Jobs with similar needs are batched together and are run through the system as a group to speed up processing. Then, after that operator will sort the programs with similar requirements.

Advantages Of Batch Processing Operating System

Disadvantages Of Batch Processing Operating System

  • Ideal for processing large amount of data in less amount of time.
  • Multiple users can contribute to the batch system.
  • Standard in managing the large work repeatedly.
  • It is a multi-task system in which multiple tasks are processed.
  • The processing time of jobs is very less.
  • It is an expensive system.
  • Lack of interaction between user and the system.
  • It is difficult for the batch processing system to locate and correct the errors in a program.
  • If there is the failure of any job then the other jobs have to wait for an unknown time.


    Multi-Processing Operating System

    Multiple processing operating system is a system in which multiple programs are processed at the same time. It makes use of two or more CPUs within a single computer system. It requires multiple CPU so that a program can run on more than one central processing unit at a time. If one of the CPU fails to run the program or shows disintegration then, the other CPU will undoubtedly take over its job and start processing it. This phenomenon is called parallel processing which improves the performance of the computer systems. Examples of multiprocessing operating systems are Windows-200, UNIX, Linux.

    Advantages Of Multi-Processing Operating System

    Disadvantages Of Multi-Processing System

    • A multi-processing operating system can continue working. If one system fails, the other system automatically takes over its job (means complete break down is rare).
    • Improves the performance of the system by developing parallel processing.
    • It is a more reliable system as compared to the batch processing operating system.
    • It is also a costly operating system.
    • More complex & complicated operating system is required to schedule the processes.
    • Large main memory is required as all the processors in the multi-processing system share the memory.


    Multi-Programming Operating System

    Multi-programming refers to the sharing of a processor by the independent programs. In the multi-programming operating system, several programs can be used at the same time by the same computer system. These programs can be executed one after another by diving the processor into a short time slice. The operating system does not simultaneously execute different programs, instead, it executes part of one program, then part of another program, and so on. It executes one program for a given length of time, then executes another program for a given length of time & so on. The most commonly used multi-programming operating systems are Windows, Mac, Linux, etc.

    Advantages Of Multi-Programming Operating System

    Disadvantages Of Multi-Programming Operating System

    • It is a fast operating system as all programs run in parallel.
    • Resources can be utilized attractively.
    • IT reduces the total read time required to execute a program.
    • Its response time is shorter.
    • It requires a large main memory.
    • It must keep track of all jobs it is concurrently running.
    • It is a complex operating system as the tracking all tasks sometimes become challenging to maintain.


    Time-Sharing Operating System

    The multiple users shared processor’s time is referred to as time-sharing. Time-sharing is a mechanism in which a task is given some time to execute. All tasks are given some time to execute so that all tasks work smoothly without any problem. The tasks may be from a single user or different users also and each user is given a particular share of time. This particular share of CPU time is called time slot or time slice or quantum.

    Advantages Of Time-Sharing Operating System

    Disadvantages Of Time-Sharing Operating System

    • Each tasks get equal time to operate.
    • Provides quick response.
    • Efficient utilization & sharing of the resources.
    • Reduces CPU idle time.
    • Accuracy problem.
    • Security maintenance problem (of user programs & data).
    • Data communication problem.


    Network Operating System

    A network operating system is a technique to manage network resources. Network operating systems are used to run computers that act as a server with the capabilities to manage data, users, groups, security, applications & other networking operations. It is an operating system that includes special features for connecting computers & devices into a local area network (LAN). The main purpose of a network operating system is to communicate with multiple computers, share files & hardware devices. To function network operating system requires an existing operating system. The most common network operating systems are Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, and Novell NetWare.

    Advantages Of Network Operating System

    Disadvantages Of Network Operating System

    • Centralized servers are very highly stabled.
    • Server managed the security concerns.
    • It can manage multiple requests (inputs) simultaneously & also provides security in a multi-user environment.
    • It is quite expensive to buy and run a server.
    • Maintenance is required frequently.


    Online Processing Operating System

    Online processing is a direct automatic method to enter and process data. The online processing system is free to use & it is an individual processing system on which the programs are processed on an individual basis. In an online operating system, an individual task is processed at a time and it does not require large memory storage. In this operating system user directly interacts with the computer system and the system provides direct output to the user. The online operating system is very useful these days which includes live processing. Online operating system requires a browser to communicate. Small businesses to large enterprises all are preferring online processing for their customers.

    Examples For Online Processing:

    • Ordering for a dress online.
    • It is an expensive operating system.
    • Managing a bank account online.
    • Booking a train ticket using the internet.

    Advantages Of Online Processing Operating System

    Disadvantages Of Online Processing Operating System

    • Easy to use.
    • Requires internet access.
    • Response time is quick.
    • It allows the users to communicate with online interfaces for their own needs.
    • It can increase the efficiency of a company’s sales operation.
    • It allows constant interaction between the user and a remote controller.
    • The content can be accessed by multiple users in a variety of locations.
    • Quite useful for companies to take product orders & handle payments from their customers.
    • Many people from various fields nowadays use online processing system to make their work easy.
    • The electricity problem may create some issues.
    • A lot of staff is required to maintain records and supplies.
    • Some websites get hacked and details of users on the internet get accessed by the hackers.
    • Sometimes traffic appears & it becomes difficult to handle various data from multiple users at the same time.


      Multi-User Operating System

      In a multi-user operating system, multiple users can use or access the same system at the same time through the network. It allows more users to run programs at the same time. It is a complex & expensive operating system. Some commonly used multi-user operating systems are Windows-2000, Windows-NT, Windows 2003, Linux & Mac, etc.

      Multi-Tasking Operating System

      A multi-tasking operating system is an operating system that is capable of executing multiple processes at the same time. It requires multiple CPU. Its processing speed is fast. Some examples of multi-tasking operating systems are Windows-2000, Windows-XP, Windows-Vista, Windows-NT, and Unix, etc.

      Real-Time Operating System

      A real-time operating system is a type of operating system that processes data within a very short amount of time. It means that a real-time operating system processes the data immediately without any delay and then produces the output. If any input is their it responds very quickly to it. The time taken by the system to process and respond to inputs is termed as response time.

      Examples Of Real-Time Processing Operating System Are:

      • Booking of a flight ticket.
      • Scientific experiments.
      • Industrial control systems.
      • Air traffic control systems.
      • Patient health condition observing in the ICU on the computer’s screen.

      Types Of Real-Time Operating System:

      • Hard Real-Time Systems: Hard real-time systems include time restrictions and ensure that critical tasks complete on time.
      • Soft Real-Time Systems: Soft real-time systems are less restrictive as compared to the hard real-time systems. The soft real-time task gets preference over other tasks and maintains the priority until it completes.

      Advantages Of Real-Time Operating System

      Disadvantages Of Real-Time Operating System

      • It is an error-free system.
      • This system focuses on running applications.
      • Memory allocation is best maintained in them.
      • Maximum consumption of devises & system, execution of more outputs from all the resources.
      • Very few tasks can run at the same time.
      • System resources are more expensive.
      • Complex algorithm & difficult for the designers to write on.


        Distributed Operating System

        The distributed operating system is a collection of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. It gives rise to distributed computing which is the result of various interconnected computers communicate with each other through various communication network lines. Hence, it is called loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors connected in a distributed system may differ in their size and functionalities. These processors are referred to as sites, nodes & computers, etc. LOCUS is an example of a distributed operating system.

        Advantages Of Distributed Operating System

        Disadvantages Of Distributed Operating System

        • Data processing is fast in these types of systems.
        • Reduction of the load on the host computer.
        • It provides better service to the customers.
        • Computation is extremely fast as the resources are being shared.
        • Data exchange speed is increased by electronic mail.
        • As all systems are independent of each other so the failure of one system will not affect the other network communication.
        • Expensive operating system.
        • Entire communication will stop due to the failure of the main network.





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